Over the last decade, the UK has experienced some of the most significant and extreme flood events of the last 100 years, and predicted changes in precipitation are expected to increase the frequency and costs of flooding. New approaches to managing flood risk are required, and there is increasing emphasis on Natural Flood Management (NFM) whereby natural processes are used to reduce the risk of flooding and coastal erosion. NFM has been identified as a core element of the UK government’s new 25-year environment plan to mitigate the effects of flooding. Alongside this, a radical new approach to land management is emerging that has the potential to deliver significant changes to hydrological processes over large spatial scales. Rewilding is a conservation approach focusing on landscape-scale restoration of ecosystems and reinstating natural processes. It can include, but is not limited to, the reintroduction of missing keystone species (cattle, ponies, deer, pigs, beavers). These ecosystem engineering animals can generate significant landscape-scale changes in vegetation structure. Increasingly, the debate about rewilding in the UK recognises the potential for different degrees of ‘wildness’ from a more hand-off approach to land management through to allowing nature to take over. It is likely that we begin to see many different approaches across this gradient with NFM being a major driver. Combining novel remote sensing methods and plot-scale experimentation, this PhD will seek to characterise vegetation changes for different rewilding settings and trajectories and determine how they modify key hydrological processes. These analyses will inform the development of decision-support tools for modelling rewilding impacts in the context of NFM.